Modern World History


Following World War II, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) was proclaimed. Because of its great losses during the war and to prevent future bloodshed, Tito gave Bosnia a constitution and the status as an independent republic within the Yugoslav State, defined by its historic existence. Tito also created Macedonia as a separate republic.

Yugoslavia was a socialist state based on the Communist party.  For 45 years, Tito's totalitarianism kept ethnic peace within Yugoslavia. The concept that he continually advocated was called "Brotherhood and Unity."  However, economic and political developments from 1974 to 1980 set the scene for the ruin of Yugoslavia and the beginning of new conflict in the Balkans.  In the spring of 1981 clashes occurred in Kosovo between the Serb administration and numerous Kosovo Albanians calling for status as the seventh republic, but not for independence. This situation led to bloody and violent demonstrations, which were severely suppressed by the police as well as by tanks of the Yugoslav National Army (JNA).  In May 1986, Slobodan Milosevic, a former manager of a gas company, became head of the communist party of Serbia and stressed Serbian ultra-nationalism.  In March 1989 the autonomous status of Vojvodina and Kosovo was annulled, and those regions, against their collective wills, again became integral parts of Serbia. The dismantling of Tito's multi-ethnic Yugoslavia was underway.


On April 6, 1990, BiH was recognized as an independent state by the European Community, and Serb paramilitary forces fired on a crowd of peaceful demonstrators. Paramilitary forces had been bombing and shooting in towns throughout Bosnia in March and April. The siege of Sarajevo, as well as the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, had begun.  (Mr. Thierry Domin)


Refugee Camp, Albania


In 1994, NATO got involved in the conflict, to enforce UN attempts to stop the war. On February 8th, NATO jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia; this was the alliance's first use of force since it was founded in 1949. The so-called Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina was announced on Febrary 9, 1994 and in March 1994, Muslims and Croats in Bosnia signed the peace agreement, creating the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This narrowed the field of warring parties down to two. In 1994-95, NATO bombed the Serbs and as a result of NATO bombing the Muslim-Croat alliance gained the initiative in the war, retaking much of Eastern Bosnia from the Serbs. In July 1995, the worst massacre of the civil war occurred, when Serbs killed over 7,000 Muslims man in the "safe area" of Srebrenica. The killings were retaliation for the crimes the Muslims of Srebrenica committed on the surrounding Serb villages.  The conflict continued through most of 1995, ending with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on November 21, 1995 (the final version was signed December 14, 1995 in Paris). The Muslim-Croat Federation, along with the Serb-led Republika Srpska, was to make up Bosnia-Herzegovina.


In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place, with about 20,000 troops as of August 2001. (Wikipedia)


The National Support Element (NSE) is located in a building that once served as a headquarters for the Hungarian Air Force. Thus, it is probably the only U.S. Army building anywhere in the world to have MiGs on display in front of it.



                       Hungarian Air Force Headquarters, Taszar, Hungary                             6th cent. fortress, Skopje, Macedonia


When the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States went cold in the late 40s, West Berliners had to fly supplies in.  This was called the Berlin Air Lift.



                                                       Border between Czech and FRG, 1987                                         Berlin Air Lift Memorial,                    

                                                                                                                                                 Frankfurt, Germany



The Berlin Wall, Berlin, Germany                                                 The Texas School Book Depository, Dealy Plaza, Dallas, TX


Kruschev was convinced Kennedy was a lightweight.  He threw up the Berlin Wall just to see what Kennedy would do.  The U.S. did not reply.  However, later JFK proved his worth when he stared down the Bear just 90 miles off the coast of Florida.  We were on the brink, and Kennedy didn’t blink.  The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time. Kennedy was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding in a presidential motorcade within Dealey Plaza. He was the fourth U.S. President to be assassinated, and the eighth to die while in office.  Two official investigations have concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository in Dealey Plaza, was the assassin, with one government investigation concluding that Oswald acted alone and another suggesting that he acted with at least one other person. The assassination is still the subject of widespread speculation, and has spawned a number of conspiracy theories.


Tensions were bad at the height of the Cold War.  These tanks would have opposed each other on European soil.



                                                      M60 Tank (U.S.)                                                                T62 Tank (Soviet)



                                                                Pohang, Korea                                                               ROK Marine Base, Pohang, Korea (1983)


During the summer of 1950, the KPA (Korean People’s Army), backed by China, cornered the U.N. troops in Pohang and the surrounding area.  It wasn’t until mid-September that MacArthur landed at Inchon and cut off the advance.  MacArthur said he could retake Seoul in three months (like Patton, when he said he could move three divisions in two days from Metz to Bastogne).  The tide at Inchon (Walmido Island) left 3.5 miles of beach when out.


The ultimate goal for the Army is be able to move a brigade-size force of about 5,000 troops from the United States to anywhere in the world within four days, to move a division of 16,000 within five days, and move five divisions within 30 days. 



                                                      C-17 Globemaster                                             On the flight deck of the U.S.S. Ronald Reagan


The 100,000-ton U.S.S. Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) is home to 6,000 sailors and 80 combat aircraft.  Its flight deck covers 4.5 acres (about three football fields).  The island towers 20 stories above the water line.




On 11 September 2001, terrorists on board four U.S. airliners carried out unprecedented attacks almost simultaneously in cities on the East Coast, one of those cities being New York City.  Here we are atop 2 World Trade Center in 1991.


Observation Deck, 2 World Trade Center



Note:  While I make every effort to produce an error-free document, errors occasionally creep in. I would appreciate you bringing any to my attention so that I may make the necessary corrections.



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